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2021考研英语:同位语从句的语法分析

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2020-03-24 17:21

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  考研英语备考很多事情都要提上日程了,看看哪些是该注意的,下面由出国彩神8快3-彩神快3官方网小编为你精心准备了“2021考研英语:同位语从句的语法分析”,持续关注本站将可以持续获取更多的考试资讯!

  2021考研英语:同位语从句的语法分析

  一、同位语从句

  同位语从句是对名词的内容给予具体、详细的说明。常在后面接同位语从句的名词有fact, news, idea, truth, hope, suggestion, question, problem, doubt, fear, belief等。同位语从句常用的引导词为that,有是也用when, where 等疑问词。如:

  The news that the United States was hit by terrorist attacks took the whole world by surprise. 美国受到恐怖主义分子袭击的消息令全世界吃惊。

  The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong. 你认为不动脑筋就能做好这件工作的想法是完全错误的。

  People used to hold the belief that the earth was the center of the universe. 人们曾认为地球是宇宙的中心。

  The difficulty lies in the fact that we are short of money. 困难在于我们缺乏资金这个事实。

  They have no idea at all where he has gone. 他们一点儿也不知道他去哪儿了。

  注意:同位语从句的that 只是引导词,没有其他语法作用,在句子中不作句子成分,不能省略;而定语从句中的that 除了引导定语从句外,还是定语从句的一个成分,在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不能省略,作宾语时可以省略。如:

  The idea that some peoples are superior to others is sheer nonsense. 有些民族优越于其他民族这种想法简直荒谬。(同位语从句)

  The idea that he proposed at the meeting is sheer nonsense. 他在会议上提出的这个想法简直荒谬。(定语从句)

  No one is happy with the fact that he found out. 没有人对他发现的事实感到高兴。(定语从句)

  No one is happy with the fact that he will become their boss. 没有人对他将成为他们的老板这一事实感到高兴。(同位语从句)

  2021考研英语:关系代词的语法解析

  ►指人的关系代词:who, whom, whose, that 的用法:

  (1) 作主语(who, that )

  Those who are going to play in the match are to meet at the gate at 1:30 after lunch.

  那些参加比赛的人午饭后1:30在大门口集合。

  在本句中,先行词是those;关系代词who引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词are going to play 的主语。

  The man who/that is talking with Mr. Wang is a famous doctor.

  正在和王先生说话的那个人是一个有名的医生。

  在本句中,先行词是the man;关系代词who/that引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词is talking的主语。

  这个复合句可以还原成两个句子:The man is a famous doctor. He is talking with Mr. Wang.

  (2) 作宾语包括作介词宾语(whom, that )。此种情况下的关系代词可以省略;

  This is just the man (whom/that) I want for the job.这正是我要的做这份工作的人。

  在本句中,先行词是the man;关系代词whom/that引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词want 的宾语。

  Is he the manager (whom/that) you are looking for?

  他是你在找的那位经理吗?

  (3) 当关系代词紧跟介词作介词宾语时,不能用that,也不能省略,

  如:The book from which I got a lot of useful information was written by a famous scientist.

  我从中得到许多有用信息的那本书是一位著名科学家写的。

  Who is the boy with whom you were talking a moment ago.

  你刚才和他说话的那个男孩是谁?

  I know the young couple from whose house the music is coming.

  ►指物的关系代词which和that的用法:

  1. 作主语

  This is the instruction manual which/that tells you how to operate the computer.

  这是那本教你如何操作计算机的说明手册。

  2. 作宾语包括作介词宾馆。此种情况下的关系代词可以省略:

  The chair (which /that) you broke yesterday is now being repaired.

  你昨天弄坏的那把椅子现在正在修理。

  The film (which/that) I saw last night was about a soldier who fought in WWII.

  我昨天晚上看的那部电影是关于一个在二战中打过仗的士兵的。

  (本句有两个定语从句。)

  This is the bike for which I paid $ 100.

  这就是我花了100美元买的那辆自行车。

  The car (which/that) he went in was a black Cadillac.

  他坐在里面走了的那辆汽车是一辆黑色的卡迪拉克。

  The accounts of the company, (which/that) I’ve been paying great attention to, are in balance.

  我一直非常注意的公司账目,是保持平衡的。

  3.whose 和of which 指代人或事物,作定语。of which 可用whose 代替;

  The car whose lights (of which the lights/the lights of which) were all broken was my father’s.

  那辆所有的灯都破了的汽车是我父亲的。

  例:His house of which the windows (the windows of which /whose windows) were all broken was a depressing sight.

  他那所有窗户都坏了的房子真是目不忍睹。

  That is the book whose cover (of which the cover/the cover of which ) was broken.

  这就是那本封皮破了的书。

  4.关系代词的格应与它在从句中充当的成分一致。特别要注意插入语,

  如:Peter is the one who everybody believes will fail to bring off the contract. Peter 是那个人人都认为不能完成合同的人。(everybody believes 是插入语)

  At the election I voted for the man whom I believed to be the most suitable.

  在选举的时候我投了我认为最合适的那个人的票。

  5.关系代词作从句的主语时,从句的动词必须和先行词的人称和数一致:

  例:These are the operating instructions that/which are written in English 。

  这就是用英文写成的使用说明。

  Are you staying at the white house which/that is newly completed and which /that has 15 bedrooms, 3 kitchens and 4 toilets?

  你是住在那幢刚刚竣工、有15个卧室、3个病房和4个卫生间的白色房子里吗?

  2021考研英语:定语从句的语法解析

  从句就是一个主谓结构相当于整个句子(这样的句子叫复合句)中的一个成分,因此从句不能单独使用。在复合句中修饰名词或代词、作定语的句子叫定语从句。

  定语从句是中国人学英语最重要的难点之一。其实定语从句很有规律,总结如下:在关系代词中that既可指人又可指物、既可作主语又可作宾语,因此,除了在非限定性定语从句中,用that一般不会出问题。

  关系副词的用法比较单一,它们从句中只起状语的作用,表示时间的就用who门,表示地点的就用where,而why只修饰一个词,即reason。

  定语从句所修饰的词叫“先行词”,因为它总是处在定语从句的前头,比定语从句先行一步。

  引导定语从句的词叫关系词,包括关系代词和关系副词。

  •关系代词:

  who,which,that作从句的主语

  whom,which,that作从句的宾语(可省略)

  whose从句中作定语

  以下情况只能用that,不能用which:

  i.先行词为不定代词all, little, none,any,every,no,much, anything, nothing

  ii. 先行词有最高级和序数词修饰时(包括: the only, the very, the same, the last, the next等)

  iii.先行词既有人又有物的时候

  以下情况只能用which,不能用that;

  ① 引导非限制性定语从句(包括代表整个主句的意思时)

  ② 介词+关系代词的结构中

  •关系副词:

  when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语

  where指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语

  why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语,只修饰reason。

  如果用定语从句把两个句子合二为一:首先找出两个句子当中相同的部分,定语从句修饰的就是这一部分。要把其中一个句子变成定语从句,就要把这句中相同的那个部分用一个关系词来代替;代替时,先看被代替的部分是指人还是指物、再看它作什么句成分。指人并作主语的,就用who。或that;指人并作宾语的,就用whom或that;指人并作定语的,就用whose。指物并作主语的,就用which或that认指物并作宾语的,还是用which或that认是物并作定语的,就用whose或of which。这样找好并替换以后,再把这个关系代词放到要变成定语从句的那个句子的最前面(被代替的部分不能再保留,其它的词语一律不变),这个句子就变成了定语从句。然后,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,最后,如果还有其它句子成分,就把它们放到定语从句的后面,就行了。

  例如:

  Have you found the book? You were looking for the book yesterday.

  在这两个句子中,the book是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the book。把后面这一句变成定语从句,找个关系词来代替the book;在将要被变成定语从句的名子中,the book是物并作宾语,所以用which或that代替它。

  然后把which或that放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,就成了"that/which you were looking for yesterday?”,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了“have you found the book that/which you were looking for yesterday?”定语从句就完成了,主句是问句,所以句末用问号。that/which代替的是原句中的宾语,原句变成了从句,它们仍然作从句的宾语。关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略,因此上句又可变成“have you found the book you were looking for yesterday?”。

  关系副词与此同理。只是关系副词代替的是原句中的状语。在被代替之前,这个状语中一定要含有一个与另一句相同的成分。

  例如:This is the house where I was born and brought up. = I was born and brought up in the house. 在这两个句子中,in the house是句子里的地点状语,定语从句修饰的就是the house。把后面这一句变成定语从句。在将要被变成定语从句的句子中,in the house是地点状语,所以用where来代替它。然后再把where放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序来代替它。然后再把where放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,就成了"where I was born and brought up"。再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了"This is the house where I was barn and brought up.”,定语从句就完成了,主句是陈述句,所以句末用句号。Where代替的是原句中的状语,原句变成了从句,它就作从句的状语。

  (1) The hotel is an artistic building. We'll stay in it.

  ……The hotel where we'll stay is an artistic building.

  ……The hotel (which/that) we'll stay in is an artistic building.

  ……The hotel in which we'll stay is an artistic building.

  (2) Perhaps they' ve heard of the place. We went there for our holidays last time.

  ……Perhaps they' re heard of the place where we went for our holidays last time.

  •定语从句

  请大家照上面的例子,把下面变定语从句的步骤说出来(括号里的可以省略):

  (3)They’re redecorating the room. A conference will be held in the room.

  →They’re redecorating the room where a conference will be held.

  →They’re redecorating the room (which /that) a conference will be held in.

  →They’re redecorating the room in which a conference will be held.

  那么,“介词+关系代词”是怎么回事呢?原来上面这个例句,还有一种做法:This is the house. I was born and brought up in the house.在这两个句子中,the house是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the house 。把后面这一句变成定语从句。在将要被变成定语从句的句子中,the house表示物而且是介词in的宾语,所以用关系代词which或that来代替。然后把which或that放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,后面这一句就成了 “which/that I was born and brought up in”。再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了“This is the house which/that I was born and brought up in”。定语从句就完成了,主句是陈述句,所以句末用句号。

  推荐阅读:

  2021考研英语词汇:cardinal的反义词分析

  2021考研英语语法:非谓语动词形式的分析

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